Miller-Urey Experiment; Origin of Life

Miller-Urey Experiment; Origin of Life

The Miller and Urey experiment,  it was conducted in 1952 and published in 1953 by Stanley Miller and Harold Urey at the University of Chicago. It has been considered as a breakthrough  that made organic compounds out of inorganic ones by applying a form of energy. Their  idea was based on simulation of  hypothetical conditions on the early Earth as to test the biochemical origins of life.

Urey and Miller were testing the hypothesis of Alexander Oparin’s and J.B.S Haldane’s hypothesis, as they said that “conditions on the primitive earth favored chemical reactions that synthesized organic compounds from inorganic precursors.” This is consider to be classical experiment on the origin of life.

The reason that this experiment is consider a significant since after Miller’s death in 2007, scientists examined sealed vials preserved from the original experiments. They were able to show that there were well over 20 different amino acids produced in Miller’s original experiments. That is considerably more than those Miller originally reported, and more than the 20 that naturally occur in life.

Possibly one of the most important experiments was one conducted in 1952, when the scientists Urey and Miller, who were interested in the origin of life, and they carried out an experiment, to simulate an early Earth atmosphere. And you can see this rather ingenious apparatus where they’ve got some water boiling away inside a flask, being circulated into another container that’s got an electrical discharge apparatus. And this electrical discharge is discharging across an ancient simulated Earth atmosphere.
And they circulated this water round and round. And after a period of time, they found that the gases in this container, once they had been electrically sparked, transform themselves into amino acids, that we saw, are the building blocks of life. So, in this simple experiment, using only water and the constituents of early Earth atmosphere, these scientists managed to create the building blocks of life. This was a truly remarkable experiment, a breakthrough in astrobiology that allowed scientists to go from speculation about the origin of life, to thinking about how those early building blocks might well have formed. Nowadays we think that the atmosphere of early Earth is actually slightly different from the atmosphere that was used by Urey and Miller in the early experiments. But nevertheless this remains a remarkable and landmark experiment in the early history of Astrobiology, at least in the twentieth century. And taking our understanding of the origin of life to a new, empirical level.

 

References

[1] Hill H.G. & Nuth J.A. (2003). “The catalytic potential of cosmic dust: implications for prebiotic chemistry in the solar nebula and other protoplanetary systems”. Astrobiology 3 (2): 291–304. doi:10.1089/153110703769016389. PMID 14577878.

[2] Balm S.P; Hare J.P. & Kroto H.W. (1991). “The analysis of comet mass spectrometric data”. Space Science Reviews 56: 185–9. doi:10.1007/BF00178408.

[3] Miller, Stanley L. (1953). “Production of amino acids under possible primitive Earth conditions” (PDF). Science 117 (3046): 528. doi:10.1126/science.117.3046.528. PMID 13056598.

[4] Miller, Stanley L.; Harold C. Urey (1959). “Organic ccompound synthesis on the primitive Earth”. Science 130 (3370): 245. doi:10.1126/science.130.3370.245. PMID 13668555. Miller states that he made “A more complete analysis of the products” in the 1953 experiment, listing additional results.

[5] A. Lazcano, J.L. Bada (2004). “The 1953 Stanley L. Miller experiment: fifty years of prebiotic organic chemistry”. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 33 (3): 235–242. doi:10.1023/A:1024807125069. PMID 14515862.

[6] Bada, Jeffrey L. (2000). “Stanley Miller’s 70th Birthday”. Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere (Netherlands: Kluwer) 30: 107–12.

[7] BBC: The spark of life. TV documentary, BBC 4, 26 August 2009.

[8] “Right-handed amino acids were left behind”. New Scientist (2554). Reed Business Information Ltd. 2006-06-02. p. 18. Retrieved 2008-07-09.

[9] Brooks D.J. et al (2002). “Evolution of amino acid frequencies in proteins over deep time: inferred order of introduction of amino acids into the genetic code”. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 (10): 1645–55. PMID 12270892

Astrobiology: An Introduction

Astrobiology: An Introduction

Astrobiology is a very new, exciting and very rapidly developing area of science that addresses the question of the origin, the evolution and the distribution of life in the universe. There’s little doubt in saying that one of the most exciting questions in Astrobiology is, “Are we alone in the universe? “And I should say right at the beginning of this course, we don’t have an answer to this question, but we do know that the answer is either yes or no. And either one of those answers has profound implications for our understanding of our own place in the universe. If the answer to this question is “Yes, we are alone in the universe.” then we need to ask the question, “Why are we alone in the universe?”, “What is missing on other planets that was present on Earth and allowed life to originate and evolve here?”. We would have to find out about the origin and evolution of life on Earth in order to find out why life on earth is so special. It would also raise fundamental philosophical questions. If there’s no other life in the rest of the universe, there’s no one else to talk to. Then, why have we spent the last 40 thousand years building a civilization? Is it just so that we can be lonely in greater luxury? Astrobiology forces us to address philosophical questions that strike at the very core of our civilization. If the answer to this question is “No, we’re not alone in the universe.” we are also faced with some very fascinating questions: What is the nature of this other life on other planets? Is it microbial life? Life like bacteria? And if so, how does it compare to life on Earth and where is it? Or is it intelligent life? And if it is intelligent life, what is the nature of this other intelligence? Can we communicate with it? And, what will be the consequences if we do communicate with it? Are we alone in the universe is unquestionably the one question in Astrobiology that fires the imagination of the general public and is probably the question that brought you along to this course. It’s a very reasonable question to ask when you think about the universe that we live in.The planet on which we live orbits a single star and this star is one of about 200 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy and our own galaxy is probably one of many many billions of galaxies throughout the universe. In truth, we don’t know how many galaxies there are in the universe. It may be something on the order of a hundred billion galaxies, maybe more. But if you think about it, 200 billion stars in our own galaxy. Possibly a hundred billion galaxies throughout the universe. It seems reasonable to ask the question: Is there life on other planets?

And that is why Astrobiology is concerned with a question for which we do not yet have an answer but which scientifically, empirically looks like a reasonable question to ask. To search for life on other planets, we first of all have to understand something about life on our own home planet, Earth..

The fact that scientists propose that the extinction of the dinosaurs was caused by an asteroid shows that in order to understand the past history of life on Earth, we have to understand its connection with the cosmic environment. So, to understand the past history of life on Earth, we have to understand Astrobiology, how life fits in to its cosmic environment. We also know that the future of life on Earth is going to change. This is a rather dramatic image of the Crab Nebula, the result of a supernova explosion. An exploding star that exploded thousands of years ago. Our own sun may not end its life in quite such a dramatic matter but in a few billion years from now, our sun will come to the end of its life and at that point our own planet will be completely destroyed and all life on it will be extinguished. That’s not for a long time to come. But we do know that in order to understand the future of life on a planet, its long term future, we must think about the connection of a planet, again, with its cosmic environment. How it connects with the history of its parent star and how long that star lives and therefore, how long you can expect life to survive on a planet. So in order to understand life on Earth, we have to understand the past history of life and its connection with the cosmic environment and we have to understand the future of life on Earth and its connection with the cosmic environment. In other words, an understanding of life on Earth is really about studying Astrobiology, the connection of life with its astronomical or cosmic environment. So astrobiology has many areas that we will look at in this course and many questions that it wants to address.

Let’s have a look at some of these questions and see what we’re going to look at throughout this course. Astrobiology is first interested with understanding the origin of life on this planet, how did it come about? And the sorts of questions that Astrobiologists ask and that we’ll be looking at in this course are: how did life originate on this planet? Where did life originate? What were the locations of the first organisms to emerge on this planet? When might they have first evolved? Is life an inevitable process on any planet where the conditions are good enough? Do you always get an evolution of life? Is this a common process throughout the universe? When did this happen? Did it happen very quickly after the earth was formed? Or did it take rather a long time for those chemical reactions to lead to the earliest types of life? And, what is the evidence for early life on Earth? What is the evidence for the origin of life on this planet and its emergence into early single-celled organisms that first occupied this planet many billions of years ago? Once we’ve established the presence of life on the planet, we want to know about its limits. How far can you push it and what sort of extremes can it live in? This is important if we are to try and understand the possibilities of life on other planets, to assess that habitability as we call it. And the sorts of questions that Astrobiologists want to address are: what are the limits of life? What are the most extreme physical and chemical environments that life can survive and grow in? How does life survive extremes? What are the sorts of mechanisms that evolves? What sort of biochemistry? What sort of physiology do organisms evolve in order to be able to cope with some of the most extreme environments on the earth? And all these limits universal? If we do find life on another planet out there in the universe, will it be living in completely different conditions from life on Earth or will we in fact find similar life living in similar types of environments? And once we’ve looked at life in extremes, what does that tell us about the prospects for life elsewhere- about the possibilities for going to extreme environments on other planets and finding life there? So by studying life on our planet today and looking at the way in which it lives in different types of environments and different extremes, we can learn something about the prospects for life elsewhere. Astrobiology as I’ve already mentioned is also concerned with trying to understand the history of life on Earth once it did emerge. It’s concerned with questions like: how is life related? When you walk around outside you see a whole diversity of life from dogs to giraffes to trees.

How are all these different creatures related? And how did they come to be on the surface of the earth? How did they evolve? Astrobiology is interested in trying to understand the connections between these different creatures and how they came to be and evolved from one another over time. We also want to know about multicellular life- complex life. We’ll see later in this course that when you look around you, most of the life that you and I are familiar with are things like dogs and giraffes that are multicellular creatures, complex larger organisms that we can see with the naked eye. But in fact, much of life on earth is bacteria- archaea- simple single celled organisms. And we want to understand as Astrobiologists how life emerged from those more simple organisms in the early history of life on Earth to the more complex life that you and I see on a day-to-day basis on the surface of the planet. And another question that concerns astrobiology this is catastrophes and extinctions. How does life go extinct? How do these catastrophes affect life throughout its history whether that be asteroid or comet impacts, giant volcanic eruptions? And, what sort of catastrophes might befall life along its long tenure on life on Earth?

Astrobiology is concerned with taking this information and looking for life elsewhere. And as I said earlier, there’s no doubt this is the most interesting question in Astrobiology, at least the one that captures the public imagination and the sorts of questions that Astrobiologists ask, once it began to get an understanding of life on the Earth is, is there life elsewhere in the universe?

Are we unique experiments in biological evolution or is it repeated on other planets? And if there is life elsewhere, what does it look like? What sort of life is it? Is it microbial life, single-celled life or is it intelligent life? And if there isn’t any life out there in the universe, why not? What’s missing in the rest of the universe that was present on the Earth that allowed life to originate and evolve on this planet? Of course, following on from that question, another interest for Astrobiologist, certainly for the general public is: are there other intelligences in the universe? If there is life out there, could it be intelligent life? And the sorts of questions that Astrobiologists want to address is: is intelligence inevitable? Wherever we get life on a planet, is it inevitable that it will eventually progress to intelligent types of lifeforms? Can we communicate with life on other planets? And if we do communicate with it, what will be the consequences for society? What would happen to us if we made contact with another intelligences ? How would that affect religion and our social structures?

And we’ll answer some of those questions in this course. Of course, it’s all very well looking for alien life and studying the evolution of life on the Earth and going out and hunting for life elsewhere. But of course, we may eventually ourselves leave the earth and travel beyond and establish permanent settlements. Some places like the moon and Mars.

And Astrobiology is also concerned with the technical question of how human beings will establish themselves in space. What is the future of human life beyond the Earth? The sorts of questions that Astrobiologists are concerned with spanned from science to technology to philosophy. And the sort of questions of things like: will humans leave the Earth? Is it inevitable that we will move out beyond the Earth and establish a permanent human presence beyond our home planet? And if we do make this choice to leave the Earth, how will we do it? How will we establish self-sustaining settlements on other planets? And, if we are going to spend money and human resources establishing other branches of civilization beyond the Earth on other planets, how do we do that but at the same time preserve the earth? How do we look after our own planet, live sustainably on the earth but establish sustainable settlements on other planets and planetary bodies such as the moon and Mars? And how will we adapt to space? If we move out beyond the Earth, what will be the social implications for humanity? How will we change as a species? How will our societies develop as we move out beyond the earth and establish settlements on other planetary bodies? These are just some of the questions, some of the diversity of questions that astrobiology seek to ask.

We’re going to learn about how we search for life on other planets. How we use our knowledge of life on the earth to go beyond the Earth and send out missions to Mars and other planets and seek out signatures of life on other planetary bodies. We’re going to look a little bit about the future of human life beyond the Earth and the establishment of a permanent human presence beyond Earth. We are going to look at some of the social implications of Astrobiology, more difficult to define than some of the scientific research associated with Astrobiology but nevertheless very important to understand the way in which science can affect society and the way in which we think about the universe around us. We’re also going to look at the difference between science and sensationalism. And you may have noticed that in some of the publicity for this course, there was even talk about UFOs, alien autopsies and all sorts of crazy but nevertheless interesting material that captures the imagination of many people. And in this course, we want to learn about what is empirical science. What is evidence that allows us to address scientific questions in Astrobiology. And what areas of Astrobiology are not underpinned at the moment by any empirical evidence that make it difficult to address particular questions. Astrobiology is a very good vehicle, particularly when we talk about extraterrestrial intelligences for thinking about the difference between science and sensationalism. And we’ll touch upon some of those problems throughout this course. So what have we learnt in this brief introduction to Astrobiology? Hopefully, what you’ve learned is that Astrobiology covers many fields. It’s a very diverse subject that goes from physics to chemistry, biology and even, philosophy and sociology when we think about the implications of discoveries in Astrobiology. Astrobiology as a subject as its name suggests,

Astrobiology that sets life in its cosmic context. It seeks to understand how life on a planet evolves in the context of its changing astronomical environment and how life changes through its origin, its evolution on the planet and eventually the end of that planet as it is destroyed perhaps by its parent star.

Astrobiology seeks to understand life from how it arose to how intelligent life might one day colonize other planets from Earth possibly to the moon or Mars and beyond. And as you’ll see throughout this course, Astrobiology as well as being a science in its own right is actually an outstanding vehicle for learning many of the common principles that underpin different parts of science. It’s a way to learn about different disciplines as well as to understand the possibility of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe.

 

By Charles Cockell,

Professor of Astrobiology at the University of Edinburgh.

 

Surface ice at Moon’s poles

Surface ice at Moon’s poles

Water is the preliminary and fundamental requirement needed for everyday life. It is very unique molecule due to some important chemical properties, it has high surface tension and high value of specific heat capacity and more importantly, it is the only substance found on earth in its all three states, gas, liquid and solid.  Our planet Earth is blue planet and hence its greenery only because of presence of water in it. Earth is estimated to have approximately 1.4 x kg water in the oceans.  It is supposed that water is present over the entire universe since study reveals its presence in the interstellar medium (ISM) as well as in the spectra of stars.

 

Achieving the milestone of one of the great mission, a team of space scientists, led by Shuai Li of the University of Hawaii and Brown University & Richard Elphic from NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Vally, directly observed evidence of water in the form of ice on the moon’s surface which was found in the darkest and coldest parts of its polar regions. This is the very first evidence directly observed by the scientist supporting water on moon’s surface.

Image above clearly indicates the distribution of ice (blue colored locations) at the surface of moon, South Pole (left) and north pole (right). Observation has been detected by analyzing data from NASA’s Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument called M3. M3, the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, launched by ISRO in 2008 significantly equipped to the confirmation of the solid ice presence on the moon. Data and direct observations have shown that the most of the ice is concentrated at lunar craters (Temperature < -250 F) at southern pole while the northern pole’s ice is more widely distributed.

Currently, a team of scientist is learning more about this ice, possible interaction with lunar environment as a key mission for NASA and commercial partners to learn our closest neighbor, Moon.

 

If you want to see the full paper published, follow the link-  Water on the surface of the Moon as seen by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Distribution, abundance, and origins

News source: NASA

Organic Molecules found in interstellar space !

Organic Molecules found in interstellar space !

Since historic times, we have wondered where we came from and where life originated. As it became apparent that the Earth was just one planet orbiting the Sun, that the Sun was just one star among ∼1011 in our galaxy, and that the Galaxy itself was only one such object among ∼1011 similar systems populating the Universe out to a cosmic horizon, with perhaps countless more lying beyond, it became clear that life on other planets, near some other star, in some other galaxy was possible. The cosmological principle also makes this idea philosophically attractive. It would suggest that life is some general state of matter that prevails throughout the Universe. The probability of finding some form of life, however primitive, on other planets either within the Solar System or around nearby stars seems very high from this point of view. Nevertheless, we are unable to predict where life should exist, mainly because we do not yet understand the thermodynamics of living organisms and what different forms life may take.

As we know, things to be in equilibrium they should follow some permitted rules. Likewise, thermodynamics distinguishes between three types of systems. Isolated systems exchange neither energy nor matter with their surroundings. Closed systems exchange energy but not matter, and open systems exchange both matter and energy with the surroundings. Biological systems are always open, but in carrying out some of their functions, they may act as closed systems. Biological processes also exhibit a well-defined time dependence. Some physical processes could take place equally well whether time runs forward or backward. If we viewed a film of a clock’s pendulum, we would not be sure whether the film was running forward or back. Only if the film also showed the ratchet mechanism that advances the hands of the clock, would we be able to tell whether it was running in the right direction. The pendulum motion is reversible but the action of a ratchet is an irreversible process. Biological processes are invariably irreversible. In an irreversible process, entropy, a measure of disorder, always increases. If a cool interstellar grain absorbs visible starlight and re-emits the radiation thermally it does so by giving off a large number of low-energy photons.

The Universe is fundamentally biological. Even the Urey-Miller experiment that simulated the theorized early pre-life conditions on Earth, and produced amino acids, suggests this. The ammonia used was obtained by a process involving hydrogen of bio-origin, and the methane was also biological in origin. Non-biological catalysts would be poisoned almost instantaneously by sulfur gases under pre-life conditions. What this means is that most of the material in interstellar grains must be organic or life itself would have been impossible. The spectrum for all grains along the line of sight from the galactic center to the Earth is very much like that of dry bacteria. Either the grains are bacteria or are organic grains in proportions like bacteria (amino acids, nucleic acids, lipids and polysaccharides). Therefore, both theoretically and observationally, organic constituents fit the observations. Organic materials or bacteria would easily align in magnetic fields, and could produce superconducting surfaces that would generate filaments. Organic materials or bacteria could more easily produce the variety of objects in the Universe than inorganic or non-biological materials. As with so much of its constituents, the Universe itself is fundamentally biological. In fact, so much is this the case that life constitutes a physical law; it had to arise, it was an inevitable complexity of the real world is even more extraordinary with a hierarchy of living things.

 

Life result of the laws of physics as they exist. Moreover, the evidence indicates that the variety and permeates all of space, it is built into the very substance of the Universe, and has even brought about its own self-consciousness we humans. Yet, we have done little, in the scientific realm, to ask one ‘open’ question: Why? And the reason is that most scientists are afraid to admit that the Universe is purposeful and fundamentally biological. If electromagnetism did not exist then there would be no atoms, no chemistry, no life, and no heat and light from the Sun. If there were no strong force then nuclei would not have formed, and therefore, nothing would be. Likewise, if the weak force and gravity did not exist, then you would not be reading this, nor would any form of life be here

Yet, these four very different forces (and no others), each vital to all of the complex structures that make up the Universe, are so fine-tuned that they all combine to make a single super-force. Granted that we do not specifically know how to search for exotic forms of life, could we not find indications of extraterrestrial life in a form familiar on Earth? All terrestrial living matter contains organic molecules of some complexity proteins and nucleic acids, for example and we might expect to find either traces of such molecules or at least of their decay products. We know of two quite distinct locations in which complex molecules are found. There may be many more. First, observations of interstellar molecules by means of their microwave spectra have revealed the existence of such organic molecules as hydrogen cyanide, methyl alcohol, formaldehyde, and formic acid. Larger molecules, such as the sugar glycol-  aldehyde, CH2OHCHO, have also been found to be quite prevalent in interstellar space. Infrared observations similarly have shown the existence of the even larger, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules.

 

References:

[1] Choudhuri A. R, Astrophysics for Physicists, Cambridge University Press (2010)

[2] Gagnon, E. et al. Soft X-ray-driven femto-second molecular Dynamic.

 

Some Useful tips !

Some Useful tips !

Personal Statement Guidelines

Personal statement is simply a collection of your strengths which try to show about your achievements and share your career aspirations. There is no hard and fast rule but principally, your personal statement should be a small and concise,your professionalism, and what you have to offer in terms of academic experience and ambition

 

Important questions that should be addressed in your personal statement:

What are your reasons for wanting to study PhD physics?
Why are you  interested in studying physics at ……….(name of university)  versus another university?
What are your long-term goals as a Physicist/Scientist?
What personal or academic characteristics are unique about you than others?
What are your personal interests?
What are your research experiences?

In the end, it needs to Include information about your college or University and the faculty writing your recommendations…

 

Follow the suggestions from the experts: words copied from https://www.theguardian.com

By all means mention what hooked you in the beginning, but do also mention what you are doing now to deepen your understanding,” says Anton Machacek, a physics teacher who graduated from Trinity College, Oxford.

He said “Popular science programmes rarely develop your thinking skills in the way universities will want. In this sense, I would say that the influence of Nina and her Nefarious Neurons on you as a toddler might count more in your favour than Prof Brian Cox at age 16.”

Think about which skills are relevant to your application: for example, computing experience will help you with a theoretical physics degree.

Machacek says it’s a shame that students often forget to talk about their A-level courses in their personal statements. “It’s no good saying ‘I’ve studied A-level physics’ – they already know that,” he says. “But you can say what skills you enjoyed developing and which areas excited you.”

 

Be specific. If The Big Bang Theory sparked your interest in physics, explain why. Schomerus, for instance, likes the episode where Sheldon takes a job as an unpaid waiter to try to discover how electrons move through graphene – it’s an area he’s done research in.

Make the statement truly personal,” he says, a point reiterated by Machacek, who is also a visiting research scientist at the Central Laser Facility in Rutherford.

“It is extremely important to be yourself,” he says. “If you are a quiet, modest type, and you force yourself to write an extrovert’s personal statement to make you seem bigger, very odd things can happen if you are interviewed.”

Most admissions tutors advise that content should always trump style or creativity, but stress that writing should be coherent because physicists must be able to communicate.

 

Extra-curricular activities can reflect passion – working at a science museum, being a member of a local astronomy society or having visited Cern, for example – but tutors realise that not everybody has these opportunities. Simply making the most of your school’s library is fine if it gives you a deeper appreciation of physics.

Some medications and its effect on Human Kidney (Renal System)

Some medications and its effect on Human Kidney (Renal System)

Several research findings reveals that some medications are harmful for Kidney function and responsible for Kidney stone formation.

 

“Medications that can damage the kidneys are known as “nephrotoxic medications.”

  • As we know whenever we go to the hospital having health issues, our treatment generally starts with antibiotic prescriptions. The problem arises when some of these antibiotics help to make crystals in renal system which don’t break down and blocks urinary track and hence urine flow.

 

  • Also, antibiotics constitutes some substances that can damage certain kidney cells when they try to filter them out. Some people also have allergic reactions to antibiotics that can affect their kidneys. All these things are more likely to happen if you take antibiotics for a long time or very high dose.

Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat severe  infections (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) but research found  it cause kidney  damage and acute interstitial nephritis, or swelling in the kidney.”

     “Aminoglycoside Antibiotics are known for causing kidney injury (nephrotoxicity), even at low doses. People with chronic kidney disease, dehydration, or those who have been taking these antibiotics for a long time are at particularly high risk. The most toxic aminoglycoside is neomycin. Although these medications are typically intravenous and used in hospitals, they are important to keep at the back of your mind”

 

  • Water pills are used to treat high blood pressure and some kinds of swelling. They help our body get rid of extra fluid. But they can sometimes dehydrate or lowers the water level of our body, which can be bad for our kidneys.

  • Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)  like aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen  shouldn’t use them regularly for a long time or take high doses of them.

  • Some medications like omeprazole, Aciphex, Prilosec, Prevacid, Nexium are used to treat heartburn, ulcers, and acid reflux also called Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs).These drugs principally works by blocking the secretion of gastric acid. Although these powerful acid blockers were never designed for long-term use but unfortunately millions of peoples around the globe take these drugs indefinitely which potentially cause deadly consequences They lower the amount of acid in our stomach, but recent studies have shown that taking them for a long time can raise our chances of serious kidney problems and possibly lead to kidney failure. Researcher suggested that If you take a PPI regularly, ask your doctor about the possibility of switching to another drug which might  be far better for your health .Now, a new study from Stanford University shows these drugs double the risk of dying from a heart attack or stroke.

  • Some supplements like creatine and wormwood oil, may bad for our kidneys. It is recommended to tell your doctor about every supplement you take to make sure they’re helping or leading to damage of your body organ.